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맥 ISO 이미지를 부팅용 USB로 복사하기

ISO파일을 img파일로 변환

hdiutil convert -format UDRW -o OSX-Mavericks.img OSX-Mavericks.iso

OS X 는 자동적으로 확장자를 .dmg 로 한다. 즉 OSX-Mavericks.img.dmg

diskutil list를 실행하여 USB 메모리 스틱이 어떤 디바이스에 할당됐는지 확인하고 다음과 같이 unmount를 한다.

diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk2

디스크 이미지를 복사

sudo dd if=OSX-Mavericks.img of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m

Disk Utility.app’ 를 실행하여 드라이버를 unmount

diskutil eject /dev/disk2 를 실행하고 USB 메모리 스틱을 물리적으로 분리

*위 글에서 OSX-Mavericks.iso가 맥용 이미지 파일이고, USB 메모리 스틱은 /dev/disk2에 있다고 가정



A4988 Step motor driver

3D프린터에 많이 사용되는 스텝모터 드라이버인 Allegro사의 A4988칩. 모터드라이버에서 가장 중요한 것은 전류인데, 이것을 설정하는 방법은 칩의 17번 핀 REF에 걸리는 전압에 의해 결정이 된다.

Current Limit = VREF × 2.5

즉 만약 Vref가 0.3이면 Current limit는 0.75A. 그런데 full step mode일때의 전류는 Current limit의 70%로 제한이 되므로 만약 1A의 전류제한으로 설정을 하려면 1/0.7 = 1.4A로 가정을 하고 계산을 한다. 따라서 Vref = 1.4 / 2.5 = 0.56V 가 되게 설정을 한다.

또한가지 모터에 흐르는 전류를 결정짓는 것은 SENSE1, SENSE2에 연결된 Rs 저항이다. 데이터 시트에 보면 공식은 다음과 같다.

I = Vref / (8 x Rs)





임베디드 리눅스 보드 비교

2016년 임베디드 리눅스 보드 트렌드 – http://hackerboards.com/2016-survey-of-open-spec-hacker-friendly-sbcs/

각 보드들의 간략한 스펙 – http://hackerboards.com/catalog-of-81-open-spec-hacker-friendly-sbcs/

임베디드 리눅스 보드 비교자료 – http://hackerboards.com/misc/sbc-survey-june2016/hackerboards.com-june2016-sbc-survey-specs-table.html

Product Price ($) Vendor Processor Cores 3D GPU MCU RAM Storage LAN Wireless HDMI or DP-out USB ports Expansion OSes
86Duino Zero 39 DMP Vortex86EX 1x x86 @ 300MHz no no 128MB no Fast no no 1 headers Linux
A20-OlinuXino-Lime 37 Olimex Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 512MB SATA Fast no yes 3 other Linux, Android
A20-OlinuXino-Lime2-EMMC 61 Olimex Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 512MB 4GB eMMC GbE no yes 3 other Linux, Android
A20-OlinuXino-Micro 61 Olimex Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 1GB opt. 4GB NAND Fast no yes 3 other Linux, Android
Andromeda Box Edge 75 Marvell, Arrow Marvell IAP140 4x A53 @ 1.2GHz Vivante GC7000UL no 1GB 8GB eMMC no WiFi, BT yes 3 96Boards Brillo
Arduino Industrial 101 39 Arduino Srl Qualcomm AR9331 1x MIPS @ 400MHz no ATmega32u4 64MB no Fast WiFi no 1 Arduino OpenWrt
Arduino Yún Mini 60 Arduino Srl Qualcomm AR9331 1x MIPS @ 400MHz no ATmega32u4 64MB no opt. WiFi no opt. Arduino OpenWrt
Arduino Tian 99 Arduino Srl Qualcomm AR9432 1x MIPS @ 560MHz no SAMD21G18 64MB no yes WiFi, BT no 1 Arduino OpenWrt
Arndale Octa 199 InSignal, Pyrustek Samsung Exynos 5420 4x A15 @ 1.8GHz + 4x A7 @ 1.3GHz Mali-T628 no 3GB opt. EMMC Fast opt. yes 2 other Linux, Android
Banana Pi M2 58 SinoVoip Allwinner A31 4x A7 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX544 MP2 no 1GB no GbE WiFi, BT yes 4 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Banana Pi M2+ 37 SinoVoip Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.6GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 1GB 8GB eMMC GbE WiFi, BT yes 2 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Banana Pi M3 70 SinoVoip Allwinner A83T 8x A7 @ 1.8GHz PowerVR SGX544 MP1 no 2GB 8GB eMMC, SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Banana Pro 48 LeMaker Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 1GB SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
BeagleBone Black 48 BeagleBoard.org TI Sitara AM3358 1x A8 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX530 PRU 512MB 4GB eMMC Fast no yes 2 Bbone Linux, Android
BeagleBone Green 39 SeeedStudio TI Sitara AM3358 1x A8 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX530 PRU 512MB 4GB eMMC Fast no no 2 Bbone, Grove Linux, Android
BeagleBone Green Wireless 45 SeeedStudio TI Sitara AM3358 1x A8 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX530 PRU 512MB 4GB eMMC Fast WiFi, BT no 5 Bbone, Grove Linux, Android
Bubblegum-96 89 uCRobotics Actions S900 4x A53 @ 1.8GHz PowerVR G6230 no 2GB 8GB eMMC no WiFi, BT yes 3 96Boards Linux, Android
Chip 9 Next Thing Allwinner R8 1x A8 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 512MB 4GB eMMC no WiFi, BT opt. 2 other Linux
CloudBit 60 LittleBits Freescale i.MX233 1x ARM9 @ 454MHz no no 64MB 4GB microSD no WiFi no 0 LittleBits Linux
Creator Ci40 156 Imagination Tech. Imagination CXT200 2x MIPS @ 550MHz no no 256MB 512MB NAND Fast WiFi, BT no 1 Pi 40, MikroBus Linux, OpenWrt, Brillo
Cubieboard3 86 Cubieboard.org Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 2GB opt. NAND or TSD, SATA Fast WiFi, BT yes 3 other Linux, Android
Cubieboard4 125 Cubieboard.org Allwinner A80 4x A15 @ 2GHz + 4x A7 @ 1.3GHz PowerVR G6230 no 2GB 8GB eMMC GbE WiFi, BT yes 5 other Linux, Android
Cubieboard5 99 Cubieboard.org Allwinner H8 8x A7 @ 2GHz PowerVR SGX544MP1 no 2GB SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 other Linux, Android
DPT-Board 56 DPTechnics Qualcomm AR9331 1x MIPS @ 400MHz no no 64MB no 2x Fast WiFi no 2 other OpenWrt
DragonBoard 410c 75 Qualcomm, Arrow Qualcomm Snapdragon 410 4x A53 @ 1.2GHz Adreno 306 no 1GB 8GB eMMC no WiFi, BT yes 3 96Boards Linux, Android
Firefly FirePrime 99 Firefly Rockchip RK3128 4x A7 @ 1.3GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 1GB or 2GB (S+) 8GB NAND (eMMC on S+) GbE WiFi, BT yes 5 other Linux, Android
Firefly-RK3288 159 Firefly Rockchip RK3288 4x A17 @ 1.8GHz Mali-T760 no 2GB (4GB on Plus) 16GB eMMC (32GB on Plus) GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 other Linux, Android
Firefly-RK3288 Reload 189 Firefly Rockchip RK3288 4x A17 @ 1.8GHz Mali-T760 no 2GB 16GB eMMC, SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 4 other Linux, Android
Galileo Gen 2 56 Intel Intel Quark X1000 1x x86 @ 400MHz no no 256MB no Fast no no 2 Arduino, mini-PCIe Linux
Gizmo 2 189 AMD, GizmoSphere AMD G-Series GX210HA 2x x86 @ 1GHz Radeon 800 no 1GB mSATA, 2x SATA GbE no yes 6 5x PCIe Linux
HiKey 75 (99 with 2GB) LeMaker, 96Boards.org HiSilicon Kirin 6220 8x A53 @ 1.2GHz Mali-450 MP4 no 1GB or 2GB 8GB eMMC no WiFi, BT no 3 96Boards Linux, Android
HobbitBoard 69 Wandboard.org NXP I.MX6 UL 1x A7 @ 528MHz no no 256MB 4GB eMMC Fast WiFi, BT no 2 MikroBus Brillo
HummingBoard-Base 70 (with Solo) SolidRun NXP i.MX6 1x/2x/4x A9 @ up to 1.2GHz Vivante GC355 no 512MB to 2GB no GbE opt. yes 2 other Linux, Android
HummingBoard-Pro 85 (with Solo) SolidRun NXP i.MX6 1x/2x/4x A9 @ up to 1.2GHz Vivante GC355 no 512MB to 2GB mSATA GbE opt. yes 2 Mini-PCIe Linux, Android
HummingBoard-Edge 102 (with Solo) SolidRun NXP i.MX6 1x/2x/4x ARM @ up to 1.2GHz Vivante GC355 no 512MB to 4GB 4GB eMMC, mSATA, M.2 GbE opt. yes 4 Mini-PCIe Linux, Android
HummingBoard-Gate 70 (with Solo) SolidRun NXP i.MX6 1x/2x/4x ARM @ up to 1.2GHz Vivante GC355 no 512MB to 4GB no GbE opt. yes 4 Mini-PCIe, MikroBus Linux, Android
Inforce 6410Plus 143 Inforce Qualcomm Snapdragon 600 4x A15 @ 1.7GHz Adreno 320 no 2GB 4GB eMMC, SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 other Linux, Android
Intel Edison Kit for Arduino 87 Intel Intel “Tangier” Atom 2x x86 @ 500MHz + Quark no Quark 1GB 4GB eMMC no WiFi, BT no 2 Edison 70-pin, Arduino Linux
LeMaker Guitar 45 LeMaker Actions S500 4x A9 @ 1.6GHz PowerVR SGX544 no 1GB or 2GB 8GB eMMC Fast WiFi, BT yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
LinkIt Smart 7688 13 SeeedStudio, MediaTek MediaTek MT7688AN 1x MIPS @ 580MHz no opt. ATmega32U4 128MB 32MB no WiFi no 2 opt. Arduino and Grove OpenWrt
LinkSprite Acadia V3 119 LinkSprite NXP i.MX6 Quad 4x A9 @ 1.2GHz Vivante GC355 no 1GB SATA GbE no yes 3 Arduino Linux, Android
LinkSprite Arches 95 LinkSprite Allwinner A80 4x A15 @ 2GHz + 4x A7 @ 1.3GHz PowerVR G6230 no 2GB 8GB eMMC GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 Linux, Android
MarsBoard AM335x 75 HaoYu, MarsBoard.org TI AM3358 1x A8 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX530 no 512MB 4GB eMMC Fast no yes 2 Bbone Linux, Android
MarsBoard RK3066 58 HaoYu, MarsBoard.org Rockchip RK3066 2x A9 @ 1.6GHz Mali-400 no 1GB 4GB eMMC Fast no yes 5 other Linux, Android
MarsBoard RK3066 Pro 140 HaoYu, MarsBoard.org Rockchip RK3066 2x A9 @ 1.6GHz Mali-400 no 1GB 4GB eMMC Fast no yes 5 Arduino Linux, Android
MinnowBoard Turbot 140 Intel, ADI, Minnowboard.org Intel Atom E3826 2x x86 @ 1.46GHz Intel HD Graphics no 2GB SATA GbE no yes 2 other Linux, Android
NanoPC-T3 60 FriendlyARM Samsung S5P6818 8x A53 @ 1.4GHz Mali-400 MP no 1GB or 2GB 8GB eMMC GbE WiFi, BT yes 5 other Linux, Android
NanoPi M1 11 FriendlyARM Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.2GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 512MB or 1GB no Fast no yes 3 Pi 40 Linux
NanoPi M2 25 FriendlyARM Samsung S5P4418 4x A9 @ 1.4GHz “3D GPU” no 1GB no GbE no yes 3 Pi 40 Linux
NanoPi M3 35 FriendlyARM Samsung S5P6818 8x A53 @ 1.4GHz Mali-400 MP no 1GB no GbE WiFi, BT yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
NanoPi2 Fire 23 FriendlyARM Samsung S5P4418 4x A9 @ 1.4GHz “3D GPU” no 1GB no GbE no yes 2 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Odroid-C0 27 Hardkernel Amlogic S805 4x A5 @ 1.5GHz Mali-450 no 1GB opt. EMMC no no yes 5 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Odroid-C1+ 32 Hardkernel Amlogic S805 4x A5 @ 1.5GHz Mali-450 no 1GB Opt. EMMC GbE no yes 5 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Odroid-C2 40 Hardkernel Amlogic S905 4x A53 @ 2GHz Mali-450 MP2 no 2GB Opt. EMMC GbE no yes 5 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Odroid-XU4 74 Hardkernel Samsung Exynos5422 4x A15 @ 2GHz + 4x A7 @1.4GHz Mali-T628 MP6 no 2GB opt. SATA GbE opt. yes 3 other Linux, Android
Orange Pi Lite 12 Shenzhen Xunlong Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.2GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 512MB no no WiFi yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Orange Pi One 10 Shenzhen Xunlong Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.2GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 512MB no Fast no yes 2 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Orange Pi PC / PC Plus 15 Shenzhen Xunlong Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.6GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 1GB opt. (8GB eMMC on Plus) Fast no yes 4 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Orange Pi Plus2 / Pluse2E 49 Shenzhen Xunlong Allwinner H3 4x A7 @ 1.6GHz) PowerVR SGX544 MP2 no 2GB 8GB eMMC, SATA GbE WiFi yes 5 Pi 40 Linux, Android
Parallella 99 Adapteva Zilinx Zynq-7020/7010 2x A7 @ 667MHz + FPGA no no 1GB no GbE no yes 2 other Linux
pcDuino Lite / Lite WiFi 29 LinkSprite Allwinner A10 1x A8 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 512MB opt. 2GB (Lite WiFi) Fast opt. WiFi yes 0 Arduino Linux
pcDuino3 Nano / Nano Lite 40 LinkSprite Allwinner A20 2x A7 @ 1GHz Mali-400 no 1GB 4GB flash, SATA GbE no yes 3 Arduino Linux, Android
pcDuino8 Uno 49 LinkSprite Allwinner H8 8x A7 @ 2GHz PowerVR SGX544 no 1GB no GbE no yes 2 Arduino Linux, Android
Pine A64 15 Pine64 Allwinner A64 4x A53 @ 1.2GHz Mali-400 MP2 no 512MB to 2GB no Fast or GbE no yes 3 Pi 40 Linux, Android
PixiePro 100 Code NXP i.MX6 Quad 4x A9 @ 1GHz Vivante GC355 no 2GB SATA opt. WiFi, BT, etc. yes 3 opt. PCIe Linux
Radxa Rock Lite / Rock Pro 59 Radxa Rockchip RK3188 4x A9 @ 1.6GHz Mali-400 no 1GB or 2GB 4GB or 8GB NAND Fast WiFi (BT on Pro) yes 3 other Linux, Android
Radxa Rock 2 Square 129 Radxa Rockchip RK3288 4x A17 @ 1.6GHz Mali-T764 no 2GB or 4GB 16GB or 32GB eMMC, SATA GbE WiFi, BT yes 4 other Linux, Android
Raspberry Pi Zero 14 Rpi Trading Broadcom BCM2835 1x A8 @ 1GHz VideoCore IV no 512MB no no no yes 2 Pi 40 Linux
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B 35 Rpi Trading Broadcom BCM2836 4x A7 @ 900MHz VideoCore IV no 1GB no Fast no yes 5 Pi 40 Linux
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B 35 Rpi Trading Broadcom BCM43437 4x A53 @ 1.2GHz VideoCore IV no 1GB no Fast WiFi, BT yes 5 Pi 40 Linux
Rico Board 99 MYIR TI AM437x 1x A9 @ 1GHz PowerVR SGX530 no 512MB (or 256MB or 1GB) 4GB eMMC GbE no yes 2 other Linux
RioTboard 79 Newark, RioTboard.org NXP i.MX6 Solo 1x A9 @ 1GHz Vivante GC355 Kinetis K20 1GB 4GB eMMC GbE no yes 5 other Linux, Android
Roseapple Pi 50 Roseapplepi.org Actions S500 4x A9 @ 1.6GHz PowerVR SGX544 no 256MB 4GB eMMC Fast no yes 4 Pi 40 Linux, Android
SAMA5D4 Xplained 94 Newark, Atmel Atmel SAMA5D4 1x A5 @ 528MHz no no 512MB 512MB NAND Fast no yes 3 Arduino Linux
Seeeduino Cloud 70 SeeedStudio Qualcomm AR9331 1x MIPS @ 400MHz no ATmega32u4 64MB 64MB NAND Fast WiFi no 2 Arduino, Grove Linux
Snickerdoodle 62 Krtkl Xilinx Zynq-7010/7020 2x A9 @ 667MHz + FPGA no STM32 512MB or 1GB no opt. WiFi, BT opt. 1 opt. Arduino Linux
Udoo Neo 50 Udoo (Seco) NXP i.MX6 SoloX 1x A9 @ 1GHz) Vivante GC355 Cortex-M4 512MB or 1GB no Fast opt. yes 2 Arduino Linux, Android
Udoo Quad/Dual/Dual Basic 99 Udoo (Seco) NXP i.MX6 Dual/Quad 2x/4x A9 @ 1GHz Vivante GC355 SAM3X8E (-M3) 1GB opt. SATA (Quad) opt. opt. yes 4 Arduino Linux, Android
USB Armory 130 Inverse Path NXP i.MX53 1x A8 @ 800MHz no no 512MB no no no no 1 headers Linux
Wandboard 79 Wandboard.org NXP i.MX6 1x, 2x, or 4x A9 @1GHz Vivante GC355 no 512MB to 2GB opt. SATA (Quad) GbE opt. yes 2 other Linux, Android
Z-turn Board 99 MYIR Xilinx Zynq-7010/7020 2x ARM @ 667MHz + FPGA no no 1GB no GbE no yes 2 other Linux

Eagel CAD에서 Pick & Place 파일 만들기

Eagle PCB에서 centroid-screamingcircuits-smd.ulp를 실행시킨다. 그러면 csv파일이 생긴다. 이파일은 inch단위의 파일이 생성된다. 만약 mm 단위의 파일이 필요하면 Mountsmd.ulp를 사용한다.

Allegro PCB에서는 File > Placement… 를 실행한다.

참고: https://www.element14.com/community/community/cadsoft_eagle/blog/2015/01/19/eagle-ulps-every-user-should-know


Eagle CAD tip

1. Commnad Line 활용

Schematic Editor
Tool Name Command
Add element a,ad,add
Net ne,Net
Move Mov,move
Copy Cop,copy
Name n,na,nam,name
Value v,va,value
Label l,la,lab,labe,label
Text T,tex,text
Board Editor
Tool Name  Command 
Route rou,rout,route
Ripup ri,rip,ripu,ripup
Via Vi,via
Ratsnest r,ra,rat,rasts,ratsn,ratsne,ratsnest

2. Show 명령어: ex) Show R*

라우팅시 오른쪽 마우스 클릭 – 와이어 꺽이는 스타일 변경

3. 라우팅시 가운데 스크롤 휠 클릭 – 레이어변경

4. Ratsnest시 좌측 하단에 라우팅 되지 않은 정보 확인

5. 부품 라이브러리

6. 라이브러리를 만들때 이글에서 만든 Ref-packages.lib 참고

7. Ratsnest로 깔린 카파를 모두 없앨때 –  ripup @ ;

8. 라우팅을 airwire 말고 중간에서 할때 – CTRL을 누르고 라우팅을 한다.

참고: